The following information is presented for educational purposes only.
Medical Marijuana Inc. provides this information to provide an understanding
of the potential applications of cannabinoids. Links to third party websites
do not constitute an endorsement of these organizations by Medical Marijuana
Inc. and none should be inferred.
Post-concussion syndrome is symptoms that can linger following a concussion.
Studies have shown cannabis reduces damage caused from brain injuries and
can help patients manage the symptoms of the syndrome.
Overview of Post-Concussion Syndrome
Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is a variety of symptoms, including headaches
and dizziness, that continue for weeks and sometimes months following a
concussion. A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury that typically
occurs after a direct blow to the head. Not all concussions lead to
post-concussion syndrome, which doesn’t seem to be correlated to the
severity of the initial blow.
What causes post-concussion symptoms to develop following certain
concussions is yet to be identified. According to Mayo Clinic, some experts
believe the symptoms come from structural damage to the brain or the
disruption of neurotransmitter systems. Others believe that psychological
factors may contribute.
In addition to headaches and dizziness, post-concussion syndrome commonly
causes fatigue, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, loss of concentration and
memory, and noise and light sensitivity.
Typically, symptoms associated with PCS develop within the first seven to 10
days after a concussion and eventually alleviate within a three-month
period. In some cases, however, the symptoms can persist for a year or
Treatment for post-concussion syndrome depends on individual symptoms.
Headaches are commonly treated with medications. Time, however, is often the
best therapy for treating memory and thinking problems.
Findings: Effects of Cannabis on Post-Concussion Syndrome
While research on cannabis’ direct effect on post-concussion syndrome is
lacking, preclinical findings have shown that cannabis offers therapeutic
benefits following brain injuries. Studies have shown that the cannabinoids
found in cannabis, most specifically cannabidiol (CBD), activate the body’s
cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), though evidence also suggests that the
neuroprotective effects from CBD come from the cannabinoid’s activation of
the 5-hydroxytriptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor (Mishima, et al., 2005). When
these receptors are activated, they provide protection against neural damage
following acute and chronic brain damage (Lopez-Rodriguez, et al., 2013).
For example, in one study, the administration of cannabinoids following a
traumatic brain injury decreased brain swelling and inflammation and was
shown to improve recovery (Shohami, et al., 2011). Another showed that CBD
alone provided neuroprotection and limited brain cell death in newborn mice
following a hypoxic-ischemic event (Castillo, et al., 2010). Others have
showed that cannabinoids, through the activation of the endocannabinoid
system, prevent glutamate excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium
accumulation, activation of cell death pathways, microglia activation,
neurovascular reactivity and circulating leukocytes following a brain
injury. Researchers concluded that modulating the endocannabinoid system is
an effective way to provide neuroprotection and prevent and reduce brain
injury (Fernandez-Lopez, Lizasoain, Moro & Orgado, 2013).
Addition research has shown that cannabis’ cannabinoids provide brain and
neuroprotection caused by disorders. One found that CBD reduces the
oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s hallmark protein (β-amyloid), thus limiting
nerve damage caused by the disorder and improving cell viability (Harvey, et
al., 2012). An animal study showed that CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
treatments were effective at delaying and limiting neural damage caused by
Huntington’s disease (Sagredo, et al., 2011). Another found that CBD, in
addition to providing neuroprotective effects and reducing long-term brain
injury, also helped restore neurobehavioral function following a
hypoxia-ischemia event (Pazos, et al., 2012).
Studies have also shown that cannabis can help post-concussion syndrome
patients manage the symptoms associated with the disorder. CBD can lower
stress, help combat depression, improve sleep and reduce pain (Abush &
Akirav, 2013) (Campos, et al., 2012) (Chagas, et al., 2013) (Russo, Guy &
Robson, 2007) (Baron, 2015).
States That Have Approved Medical Marijuana for Post-Concussion Syndrome
Currently, only the state of Illinois has
approved medical marijuana for the treatment of post-concussion syndrome.
However, in Washington
D.C., any condition can be approved for medical marijuana as long as a
DC-licensed physician recommends the treatment. In addition, a number of
other states will consider allowing medical marijuana to be used for the
treatment of post-concussion syndrome with the recommendation from a
physician. These states include: California (any
debilitating illness where the medical use of marijuana has been recommended
by a physician), Connecticut (other
medical conditions may be approved by the Department of Consumer
Protection), Massachusetts (other
conditions as determined in writing by a qualifying patient’s physician), Nevada (other
conditions subject to approval), Oregon (other
conditions subject to approval), Rhode
Island (other conditions
subject to approval), and Washington (any
“terminal or debilitating condition”).
Also, fourteen states have approved medical marijuana specifically to treat
“chronic pain,” which can develop from post-concussion syndrome. These
states include: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, New
Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island and Vermont.
The states of Nevada, New
Dakota, Ohio and Vermont allow
medical marijuana to treat “severe pain.” The states of Arkansas, Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Washington have
approved cannabis for the treatment of “intractable pain.”
Recent Studies on Cannabis’ Effect on Post-Concussion Syndrome
CBD shown to reduce neural damage and improve recovery following
a brain injury. Cannabidiol
administration after hypoxia–ischemia to newborn rats reduces
long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659086)
THC and CBD treatments found to improve pain and sleep. Cannabis,
pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of
Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17712817)
Abush, H., & Akirav, I. (2013). Cannabinoids Ameliorate Impairments Induced
by Chronic Stress to Synaptic Plasticity and Short-Term Memory. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(8),
Baron, E.P. (2015, June). Comprehensive Review of Medicinal Marijuana,
Cannabinoids, and Therapeutic Implications in Medicine and Headache: What a
Long Strange Trip It’s Been… Headache,
Campos, A. C., Moreira, F. A., Gomes, F. V., Del Bel, E. A., & Guimarães, F.
S. (2012). Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic
potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1607),
Castillo, A., Tolon, M.R., Fernandez-Ruiz, J., Romero, J., and
Martinez-Orgado, J. (2010). The neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an
in vitro model of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated
by CB2 and adenosine receptors. Neurobiology of Disease, 37, 434-440.
Chagas, M.H., Crippa, J.A., Zuardi, A.W., Hallak, J.E., Machado-de-Sousa,
J.P., Hirotsu, C., Maia, L., Tufik, S., and Anderson, M.L. (2013, March).
Effects of acute systemic administration of cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle
in rats. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(3), 312-6.
Fernández-López, D., Lizasoain, I., Moro, M. Á., & Martínez-Orgado, J.
(2013). Cannabinoids: Well-Suited Candidates for the Treatment of Perinatal
Brain Injury. Brain
Harvey, B.S., Ohlsson, K.S., Mååg, J.L.V., Musgrave, I.F., and Smid, S.D.
(2012, January). Contrasting protective effects of cannabinoids against
oxidative stress and amyloid-β evoked neurotoxicity in vitro. NeuroToxicology,
Mishima, K., Hayakawa, K., Abe, K., Ikeda, T., Egashira, N., Iwasaki, K.,
and Fujiwara, M. (2005). Cannabidiol Prevents Cerebral Infarction Via a
Serotonergic 5-Hydroxytryptamine1A Receptor–Dependent Mechanism. Stroke,
Lopez-Rodriguez, A.B., Siopi, E., Finn, D.P., Marchand-Leroux, C.,
Garcia-Segura, L.M., Jafarian-Tehrani, M.H., and Viveros, M.P. (2013). CB1
and CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonists prevent minocycline-induced
neuroprotection following traumatic brain injury in mice. Cerebral
Cortex. Retrieved from http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/08/19/cercor.bht202.abstract.
Pazos, M.R., Cinquina, V., Gomez, A., Layunta, R., Santos, M.,
Fernandez-Ruiz, J., and Martinez-Orgado, J. (2012, October). Cannabidiol
administration after hypoxia–ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term
brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function. Neuropharmacology,
Post-concussion syndrome. (2014, August 19). Mayo
Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/post-concussion-syndrome/basics/definition/con-20032705.
Russo, E.B., Guy, G.W., and Robson, P.J. (2007, August). Cannabis, pain, and
sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based
& Biodiversity, 4(8), 1729-43.
Sagredo, O., Pazos, M.R., Satta, V., Ramos, J.A., Pertwee, R.G., and
Fernandez-Ruiz, J. (2011, September). Neuroprotective effects of
phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington’s
of Neuroscience Research, 89(9), 1509-18.
Shohami, E., Cohen-Yeshurun, A., Magid, L., Algali, M., & Mechoulam, R.
(2011). Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury. British
Journal of Pharmacology, 163(7),
►CBD Meds Store
Where and How to Buy CBD Cannabidiol Meds Online
or by Phone
You can order your CBD capsules or salve balm either
online by visiting the PayPal payment links at
CBD Meds Store, or by
phoning your order with credit or debit card details to sales manager
Phillip Fry toll-free 1-866-300-1616 or cell
1-480-310-7970 or emailing